RPO (Recovery Point Objective) refers to the amount of data at risk. It's determined by the amount of time between data protection events and reflects the amount of data that potentially could be lost during a disaster recovery. The metric is an indication of the amount of data at risk of being lost.
RTO (Recovery Time Objective) is related to downtime. The metric refers to the amount of time it takes to recover from a data loss event and how long it takes to return to service. RTO refers then to the amount of time the system's data is unavailable or inaccessible preventing normal service.
The charts below summarize, further define and provide additional context: